What is the definition of "precipitation hardening"?
The process of heating to a temperature at which certain elements precipitate, forming a harder structure, and then cooling at a rate to prevent return to the original structure.

Learn more about precipitation hardening in the class Nonferrous Metals for Welding 205 below.


Welding Training


Class Information
Welding Training Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Nonferrous Metals for Welding 205
Description:This class provides an overview of the properties of common nonferrous metals used for arc welding.
Prerequisites: 650110  650115  650120 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:20
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Properties of Metals
  • Types of Properties
  • Types of Strength
  • Other Mechanical Properties
  • Physical Properties
  • The Effects of Heat
  • Heat Treatment
  • Weldability
  • Common Nonferrous Welding Metals
  • Properties of Aluminum
  • Aluminum Alloys
  • Welding Aluminum Alloys
  • Properties of Copper
  • Welding Copper Alloys
  • Welding Magnesium Alloys
  • Welding Nickel Alloys
  • Welding Zinc Alloys
  • Welding Titanium Alloys
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Explain the importance of a metal’s properties.
  • Distinguish between mechanical and physical properties.
  • List the different types of strength.
  • List common types of mechanical properties.
  • List common types of physical properties.
  • Describe how heat affects the properties of metal.
  • Describe the effects of common heat treatment methods for nonferrous metals.
  • Identify the factors that affect weldability.
  • Identify common types of nonferrous metals used in arc welding.
  • Describe the properties of aluminum.
  • Identify common groups of aluminum alloys.
  • Describe the weldability of aluminum alloys.
  • Describe the properties of copper.
  • Describe the weldability of copper alloys.
  • Describe the weldability of magnesium alloys.
  • Describe the weldability of nickel alloys.
  • Describe the weldability of zinc alloys.
  • Describe the weldability of titanium alloys.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
alloy A metal consisting of a mixture of two or more materials. One of these materials must be a metal.
aluminum A silver-white metal that is soft, light, and conductive.
aluminum oxide A chemical compound of aluminum and oxygen, which forms a thin layer on the surface of aluminum when exposed to air. Aluminum oxides should be removed before welding.
annealing The steady heating of a metal at a certain temperature followed by a gradual cooling process. Annealing is often used when welding nonferrous metals.
arc welding A fusion welding process that uses electricity to generate the heat needed to melt the base metals.
argon A colorless, odorless type of inert gas. Argon is commonly used as shielding gas.
austenitic stainless steel Stainless steel with very high strength, as well as excellent ductility and toughness. Austenitic stainless steel is the most corrosion-resistant stainless steel.
base metal One of the two or more metals to be welded together to form a joint.
boiling point The temperature at which a liquid changes to a vapor. The boiling point of zinc is below the melting temperature of most steels.
brass An alloy of copper and zinc. Brass has poor weldability.
bronze An alloy of copper and tin. Bronze is the most weldable of the copper alloys.
burnthrough Excessive melt through or a hole in the base metal. Extremely high welding temperatures can cause burnthrough.
cast nickel alloy An alloy containing nickel that has been poured as a liquid into a mold and cooled into a solid shape. Cast nickel alloys are often difficult to weld because of their high silicon content.
cold working The shaping of metal at temperatures substantially below the point of recrystallization. Cold working adds strength and hardness.
compressive strength A metal's ability to resist forces that attempt to squeeze or crush it.
copper A reddish metal that is very ductile, thermally and electrically conductive, and corrosive resistant. Copper is often used to make electrical wire.
copper-lead alloy An alloy containing copper and lead, which has the poorest weldability because the toxic lead often contaminates the weld.
copper-tin alloy An alloy containing copper and tin, which is the most weldable of the copper alloys. Tin adds strength and hardness to copper. Copper-tin alloys are also known as bronze.
copper-zinc alloy An alloy containing copper and zinc, which has poor weldability and tends to give off offensive fumes. Copper-zinc alloys are also known as brass.
corrosion resistance A metal's ability to resist attack by other elements and chemicals.
cracking A fracture that develops in the weld after solidification is complete. Welds with high hardness can cause cracking.
ductility A metal's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without breaking.
electrical conductivity A metal's ability to conduct an electrical current.
electrode A device that conducts electricity. In arc welding, the electrode also can act as the filler metal.
ferrous metal A metal that contains iron. Steel is the most popular ferrous metal.
filler metal A type of metal sometimes added to the joint in fusion welding. Filler metal adds to the strength and mass of the welded joint.
galvanizing The process of adding a zinc coating to steel. Galvanized steel is used to manufacture car parts, building frames, and ducting.
gas torch A device that emits heat in the form of a gas. Gas torches are used to preheat base metals.
gauge A standard of measure used to determine a specific thickness of sheet metal.
grain structure The relationship between the small, individual crystals in a metal or alloy.
grinding The use of an abrasive to wear away at the surface of a workpiece.
hardness A metal's ability to resist indentation, penetration, and scratching. The heat from welding may change a metal's hardness.
heat treatment The controlled heating and cooling processes used to change the structure of a material and alter its physical and mechanical properties.
heat-affected zone The portion of the base metal that has not been melted, but its mechanical properties have been altered by the heat of welding.
heat-treatable alloy Alloys that can be heated after welding to restore their strength properties.
joint The meeting point of the two materials that are joined together. Welding creates a permanent joint.
lead A soft, heavy, toxic metallic element. Lead is often used in gasoline.
magnesium A grayish white, extremely light metal that is also brittle and has poor wear resistance.
mechanical properties The properties that describe a material's ability to compress, stretch, bend, scratch, dent, or break.
melting temperature The temperature necessary to change a metal from solid to a liquid. Also known as melting point.
nickel A hard, malleable, silvery white metal used in various alloys to add strength, toughness, and impact resistance to metals.
nonferrous metal A metal that does not contain iron. Aluminum and copper are common nonferrous metals.
nonheat-treatable alloy Alloys that rely primarily on cold working to increase their strength properties.
physical properties The properties that describe a metal's ability to melt, emit heat, conduct electricity, and expand or shrink.
post heating The application of heat to the weld immediately after welding. Post heating helps reduce stress in the weld metal.
precipitate The separation of elements from a type of solution. Elements that precipitate out of a solution change a metal's properties.
precipitation hardening The process of heating to a temperature at which certain elements precipitate, forming a harder structure, and then cooling at a rate to prevent return to the original structure.
preheating The application of heat to a base metal immediately before welding. Preheating helps reduce hardness in the metal.
properties A characteristic of a material that distinguishes it from other materials.
recrystallization The formation of a new grain structure. Recrystallization is often the result of annealing.
silicon A nonmetallic element often found in sand and used to make glass. High amounts of silicon in a weld metal can cause cracking.
solution heat treating A heat treatment method used to heat an alloy to a specific temperature for a certain period of time to allow one or more alloy elements to dissolve in a solid solution and then cool rapidly.
steel A metal consisting of iron and carbon, usually with small amounts of other elements. Steel is the most common manufacturing metal.
strength A metal's ability to resist outside forces that are trying to break or deform the metal.
supersaturated solution A solution that is completely filled with alloying elements.
tack weld A weld made to hold the parts of a weld in proper alignment before the final welds are made. Tack welds are also used to aid in preheating.
tensile strength A metal's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull it apart or stretch it.
thermal conductivity The rate at which heat flows through metal.
thermal expansion The increase in the dimensions of a metal due to an increase in its temperature.
tin A silver-white, soft metal used in many alloys. Tin is often used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion.
titanium A silver-gray, strong, but lightweight metal known for its corrosion resistance. Titanium is often used in the aerospace industry.
toughness A metal's ability to withstand a sharp blow.
weave Movement of the electrode in a back and forth motion to deposit weld metal into a joint.
weld A mix of metals that joins at least two separate parts. Welds can be produced by applying heat, or pressure, or both heat and pressure, and they may or may not use an additional filler metal.
weldability The ability of a material to be welded under imposed conditions into a specific, suitable structure and to perform satisfactorily for its intended use.
wrought nickel alloy An alloy containing nickel that has been bent, hammered, or physically formed into a desired shape. Wrought nickel alloys are often welded under the same conditions as certain types of steel.
yield strength A metal's ability to resist gradual progressive force without permanent deformation.
zinc A bluish white metal that is corrosive resistant and has a relatively low melting point. Zinc is often used as a coating on steel.